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Thursday, February 15, 2007

The Collection of the Quran - Part 3 of 3

The Era of Uthman 644 – 656 C.E

After the death if the second Caliph ‘Umar, a committee made up of six of the most famous companions of the Prophet (pbuh) chose ‘Uthman Ibn Affaan to be the third Caliph.

During the reign of Caliph Umar 634- 644 C.E, the Islamic state expanded beyond the borders of the Arabian Peninsula into Egypt, Syria and Iraq. In the subsequent reign of Caliph Uthman the expansion continued on into Persia, India, Russia, China, Turkey and across North Africa. Many of the people of these regions accepted Islaam and learned the recitation of the Quran from early Muslims. The Quran was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh) in seven different Arabic dialects, and the early Muslims taught the Quran in its different readings.

The Second Writing

In the Muslim provinces, some Arabs began to boast that their dialect was superior to that of others. Also, when new Muslims made mistakes in their recitation of the Quran, it was sometimes difficult to tell whether it was really an error or whether it was one of the seven readings which were taught by the Prophet (pbuh). These problems eventually became a source of confusion in the Muslim provinces outside of Arabia. One of the Prophet’s companions (Sahaabah) by the name of Huthayfah Ibn al Yamaan noticed the confusion while he was in Iraq, and feared that it might lead to a breakup of the Muslim nation and the changing of the Quran, On his return to the capital, he informed Caliph Uthman of what he had heard and seen. Caliph Uthman realized the seriousness of the situation and called the major Sahaabahs (companions) together in order to find a solution to the problem. They decided to make official copies of the Quran from the one compiled in Caliph Abu Baker’s time and limit the people to its recitation.

Uthman asked Hafsah for the original copy of the Quran and called on Zayd ibn Thabit to head the committee of four Quraanic scholars who would take on the task of making the official copies. When the copies were completed, the original was returned to Hafsah. A total of seven copies were made and one was sent to Makkah, another to Syria, one to Basra, one to Kufah, one to Yemen, one to Bahrain and one was kept in the capital, Al Medina. Caliph Uthman sent official reciters of the Quran with each copy in order to clear up any problems which might later arise. He also ordered that all other copies of the Quran to be destroyed, as people had made notes in their personal copies and some copies were incomplete. All new copies were then made from the official copy called MUSHAF UTHMAN, and in that way the Quran was saved from any kind of change or loss. This process was completed in the year 646 C.E, two years later after Uthman became a Caliph, Quran now exist in one Arabic Dialect which is from Quraysh.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

sometimes we dont realise all the efort that went into collecting the Quran. We take our numerous copies forganted.